Histone Modification Kits
in ELISA-like kits.
Histones are primary protein components of eukaryotic chromatin and play a role in gene regulation. H3 and H4 histones have tails protruding from the nucleosome that can be modified post-translationally to alter the histone's interactions with DNA and nuclear proteins, leading to epigenetic changes for regulating many normal and disease-related processes. A complete series of kits for the quantification of methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation of H3 histones at all sites is offered. The most comprehensive selection of Histone Modification research products covers every step of your experimental workflow, from upstream to downstream.
In addition, EpiQuik Histone Modification Multiplex Assay Kits for measuring multiple histone H3 or histone 4 modifications simultaneously are provided.
Histone methylation causes transcription repression or activation, depending on the target sites. Histone methyltransferases (HMTs) control or regulate DNA methylation through chromatin-dependent transcription repression or activation. Measurement of histone methyltrasferase activity and quantification of histone methylation patterns have become pivotal in studying epigenetic regulation of genes, as well as inhibitor discovery.
Histone Methylation Quantification Assays
Histone methylation is the modification of certain amino acids in a histone protein by the addition of methyl groups. Methylation and demethylation of histones turn genes on and off in DNA. Quantifying histone methylation is particularly useful for studying gene expression patterns.
Histone Methyltransferase Assay
Histone methyltransferases (HMTs) are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of methyl groups to histone proteins, and control or regulate DNA methylation through chromatin-dependent transcription repression or activation. Histone methylation serves in both epigenetic gene activation and silencing, thereby making it important to measure the activity or inhibition of HMTs.
Histone Demethylase Assays
Histone demethylation is the removal of methyl groups in modified histone proteins via histone demethylases. The discovery of histone demethylases demonstrates that histone methylation is not a permanent modification, but rather a more dynamic process. Specific demethylases are found to be involved in some pathological processes such as cancer progression, making it necessary to better understand the activity or inhibition of histone demethylases.
Histone Acetylation & Deacetylation
Histone acetylation and histone deacetylation involve the addition or removal of an acetyl group on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail and on the surface of the nucelosome core of histone proteins. Acetylated and deacetylated histones are considered epigenetic tags within chromatin by relaxing (euchromatin) or tightening (heterochromatin) chromatin structure, subsequently increasing or decreasing gene transcription levels.
Histone Acetylation Quantification Assays
Histone acetylation, including histone H3 and histone H4, is involved in the regulation of chromatin structure and the recruitment of transcription factors to gene promoters. Quantifying total levels of acetylated histone or levels at specific lysines will help to elucidate epigenetic regulation of gene activation, and contribute to the development of HAT or HDAC-targeted drugs.
Histone Acetyltransferase (HAT) Assays
Histone acetyltransferases (HAT) are enzymes that play a critical role in transcriptional regulation of genes, and directly correspond to transcription by selectively acetylating the epsilon-amino groups of lysines located near the amino termini of core histone proteins. Abnormal gene silencing by reduced HAT activity has been linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases, particularly cancer. Determining the activity of HATs and the potency of their inhibitors contributes to drug discovery and the development of anti-cancer agents, as well as a better understanding of gene transcription.
Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Assays
Histone deacetylases (HDACs), also known as lysine deacetylases (KDACs), are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups on a histone, thereby involving the regulation of DNA expression. HDACs are also tightly involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation, and in the development of human cancer.
Histone Phosphorylation Assays
Histone phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 and serine 28 is conserved through eukaryotes, and an increase in phosphorylation has been shown to correlate with gene activation and cell growth. Detection of changes in histone phosphorylation levels can provide useful information in better understanding the pathological processes of some diseases, and for protein kinase-targeted drug development.
Protein Sumoylation Assays
SUMOylation is a post-translational modification that plays a role in various cellular processes, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, protein stability, response to stress, and progression through the cell cycle. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) proteins are attached to and detached from other proteins in cells to alter their function. The detection of in vivo protein SUMOylation (SUMO conjugation) would provide useful information for understanding the SUMO modification that emerges as an important control mechanism for regulating the activity of many nuclear proteins.