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Glass Based Arrays (G-Series)

Glass Slide Antibody Arrays

Semi-Quantitative, Sandwich-based, Glass Slide Antibody Arrays

RayBio® Glass Slide-based Antibody Arrays (G-Series) were introduced as a “second generation” array platform after the chemiluminescent membrane arrays (C-Series). The G-Series uses a 75mm x 25mm glass chip platform, which delivers easier handling along with the use of much lower sample volumes. The glass slides also utilize a fluorescent signal readout, allowing a wider dynamic detection range than can be achieved by chemiluminescence.

G-Series Antibody Arrays are particularly well-suited for projects with very limited sample volumes (as little as 10 μl per array) and large numbers of samples. Dozens of arrays can be processed per day by a single technician. Furthermore, the slide chamber assembly is compatible with many automated array processing systems, allowing high-throughput studies to be performed with very little hands-on time.

Research Applications

  • High-throughput profiling of cytokine expression
  • Identifying potential molecular targets for drug development
  • Identifying the molecular mechanisms of drug action<
  • Identifying crucial factors involved in disease processes
  • Discovering biomarkers for disease management
  • Discovering expression patterns for molecular classification of diseases


  • High sensitivity (pg/mL to ng/mL levels)
  • Large dynamic range of detection (4 orders of magnitude)
  • Compatible with many sample types
  • High throughput
  • Low sample consumption: as little as 10 µl of original sample required per array
  • No dedicated equipment required; Array scanning and Analyses service available
  • Customizable – create a custom array from our list of targets

How It Works

Glass Slide Cytokine Array DtSimilar to the C-Series (membrane-based) arrays, G-Series Antibody Arrays utilize the sandwich-ELISA design principle. In this assay, capture antibodies are printed in multiple identical arrays on a standard-sized histology slide. After a blocking step, samples are incubated with the arrays. Nonspecific proteins are then washed off, and the arrays are incubated with a cocktail of biotinylated detection antibodies, followed by a streptavidin-conjugated fluor. Signals are visualized using a fluorescence laser scanner.

Comparison to ELISA

  • More Data, Less Sample: G-Series Antibody arrays provide high-content screening using less sample volume than ELISA. Only 50 µl needed (after dilution) to detect up to 40 different biomarker proteins. As little as 10 µl original sample!
  • Global View of Cytokine Expression: Antibody array screening improves the chances for discovering key factors, disease mechanisms or biomarkers related to cytokine signaling.
  • Greater Sensitivity: As little as 4 pg/ml of MCP-1 can be detected using the G-Series array format. In contrast, the similar MCP-1 ELISA assay has a sensitivity of 40 pg/ml of MCP-1.
  • Increased Range of Detection: ELISA assays typically detect a concentration range of 100- to 1000-fold, however, RayBiotech arrays can detect IL-2 at concentrations of 25 to 250,000 pg/ml, a range of 10,000-fold.
  • Better Precision: As determined by densitometry, the inter-array Coefficient of Variation (CV) of spot signal intensities is 5-10%, comparing favorably with ELISA testing (CV = 10-15%).